Quality Service Models for higher educational institutions or Service Industries

Introduction: Quality service management always vital and it has significant importance to the user and service issuer both.  Service sectors are becoming the core focus area of development in the global economy.  So, service sectors deserves extra care specially in the area of  quality service improvement. Quality service is required in each and every sectors now a days from healthcare, hospitals, medicals, hospitality and tourism industry, mass media, telecommunication, information technology industry, financial services (banking & insurance), consulting services, real estate, legal services, employment sectors (human skills development) to educational institutions like college, University and so on.

In considerations on aforesaid issues, as the requirement of top quality service is very essential therefore, to ensure expected quality the models such as  1. TQSM (Total Quality Service Measurement) Model, 2. SQGAPFILL Model, 3. EQSERV (Economic Quality Service), 4. Quality Service Circle (7 Steps) was invented.


Quality Service Defined:


Quality service is a core heart of competitive service oriented entity/industry. Service is an activity deed to clients or users through an institutional performance efforts which rendered by profit or nonprofit entities. Essentially, quality service is a right to the customers. The organization which delivers quality service to its users can survive in the market for a long term business whether it is from profit or nonprofit venture. Quality service helps an institution to automatically build its reputation in local and global market arena. Therefore, the importance of quality service is vital and significant to its seller.

Customer Reliability means ability to perform the service dependably and accurately as per commitment given by the issuer/seller.

Customer Satisfaction means how a service meets users or customers needs and expectation.

Quality Service Circle (7 Steps):  There are seven steps of Quality Service Circle. These are as follows:

  1. Service (Type of service Offered) -> 2. Service Issuer/Seller  -> 3. Medium /Process used to transmit the service  ->4. Service Receiver/Taker/Buyer  ->5. Quality Value Received by the Service Receiver/Taker/Buyer  ->6. Satisfaction judgment (Evaluation)->7. Refer the Service to other potential customers by existing customers OR existing customer re-purchase->[Quality Service Circle Ends Here]

Unique Quality Service Models

ThoughtWares Golden Quality Service Measurement Formula

TQSM (Total Quality Service Measurement) Model:  The TQSM model includes 3 Steps to ensure its presence in the applicable service industry arena.

How to measure Service Quality using TQSM Model?

In simple terms the TQSM model defines quality Measurement as the difference between institutions and customers/users point of view where customers judgment comes through achievement/acquisition (AI) of the service received and expectations (EI) delivered by the institutions. What this method emphasizes is the quality measurement of the desired service received by users, and of the ranking or ratings position of concerned individual evaluation of service. For each service dimension and for the total service, a quality Service Model judgment can be computed according to the following formula:


TQSM (Total Quality Service Measurement) Model: EI – AI Where,  E = Expectation and EI = Expectation from an Institution.

A = Achievement/Acquisition and AI = Achievement/Acquisition by customers from operations by an Institution.

  • E= Expectation comes from internal & external users of the institution
  • A = Achievement comes from the performance of the institution from operations to customers

E & A Survey (Expectation and Achievement Survey)


Expectation value should not be less than Achievement or Acquisition value.EI = AI,Balancing must be given improved quality service output.

Expectation always hits maximum points in terms of entrepreneur’s perspective. Say,if you ask query to a CEO or Owner of the firm then s/he might tell you that we’re doing right according to our policies and strategies. Or I’m doing right as per plan and policies.Hence, here we will focus the below 5 (five) core areas and consider maximum points like 20 each out of 5 areas, Keep in mind Achievement/Acquisition areas holds 10 area of queries (Expectation Questions are less in numbers than Achievement areas), so, Ratings points we considered here double i.e. 10 x 2 =20 which is the highest ratings points for the said 5 areas. Why the ratings point is important it is because the chance remains there to improve or re-work for any further service or policies or strategies improvement/development.In our model, we strongly suggest that, to set the high goal appropriately as the world is not small, it has wide area to work or establish mission/vision/objectives based on situation.

The evaluation Criteria Table

PLEASE PROVIDE YOUR RATINGS BY “Tick Marks”. Each category requires neutral and fair rating. 

Questionnaire CategoriesSatisfactory =2Average =4Good = 6Better = 10Best = 14Excellent = 18Outstanding = 20
1. To be a market leader/leading institution/college or institution or University 
2. CEO/Directors/Management ViewsInternal Stakeholders andExternal Stakeholders 
3. Mission, Vision , Goal , Objectives of the institute
4. Strategies     [Profit Oriented/ Not for Profit Oriented]
5. Policies & Decision Making Process 
* Customize Questionnaire Category(If you less any of the above and then may add required substitute category and then put your fair ratings for evaluation)
Sub-Total Ratings Points (Should be max. 100) 
Total Ratings/ Points (Expected)

Achievement/ Acquisition: The evaluation Criteria Table.

PLEASE PROVIDE YOUR RATINGS BY “Tick Marks”. Each category requires neutral and fair rating. 

Questionnaire Categories /Quality Measurement AreasSatisfactory =1Average =2Good = 3Better = 5Best = 7Excellent = 9Outstanding = 10
1. Financial Health Assessment (Capacity Measure) 
2. Employers can judge on the institute’s students qualityORCommunities can comments on the institutes servicesORUsers Feedback on a given service/Friendliness /Customer or User Satisfaction (Service first)ORTeachers/Faculties Teaching Quality & Service judgmentORDevelopment of teaching systems and activities
3.Staff Service / Respect to customers/students (Service first/YES Culture)ANDAdmin/HR/Accounts Service to customers/students (Service first (Promptness) /YES Culture)      ORExisting / Current Students feedback on Institution service 
4.Employees Retention Capacity/ Students Retention strength unless they go for credit transfer 
5.Reliability (Ability to perform the promised service or exchange or after sales service ) 
6.Resources (Laboratory/Conference Room/Auditorium/Indoor games/Vehicles/Internet (Free Wi-Fi)/Computers/………….) 
7.Premises/Buildings (Own/Rented/Permanent) 
8.Reputation/Brand Value/Innovation (Locally/Internationally) 
9.International Collaboration/Affiliations/Membership 
10.Awards (National/International on Service of Quality or others)/ Reward for serviceon purchase
* Customize Questionnaire Category(If you less any of the above and then may add required category and then put your fair ratings for evaluation)
Sub-Total Ratings Points (Should be max. 100) 
Total Ratings/ Points (Achieved)


TQSM (Total Quality Service Measurement Model): EI – AI

If an institution scores inits expectation which is 95 and Achievement is 90 then the values will be applied in the formula is: EI – AI            = 95 – 90

= 5 (Difference)

Here have to check which one is the area where 5 ratings/points is less considered. So, the less considered area should be the focused service area to develop/improve.  Also the Expectation points/ratings as comes 95 here is short point is 5 because we strongly consider 100 for the ensuring quality so, also there we may works to improve. Alternatively, scope and opportunity is there to improve “AI” i.e. Achievement/Acquisition area for the lacking points 10 that is currently shows 90 only. Thus, TQSM (Total Quality Service Measurement) Model have chance to develop the entire EI and AI.

Key Notes:  * The bigger the gap in rating points you got that means the poor service quality exists in the institution. There have to improve the service gaps for entire satisfaction of all concerns. 

  • Don’t forget to identify the added value where the customer gained value from the service. 
  • Regular follow up the poor service area and improve those areas where most complaints areas came up.
  • If any complaint comes from customer side then solve it immediately with given first priority within earliest convenience. Don’t neglect it anyhow.  
  • Use latest information technology, online or offline software, service delivery automation (SDA) for speedy service delivery with accuracy to enhance service productivity.


SQGAPFILL MODEL (Service Quality GAP Fill Model):

Each and every organization/institutions holds more or less gaps in terms of ensuring top quality service to its customers or end users. So, the below are the potential areas where should try to identify the GAPS:

1. Weakness identification: Find the weakness or faults from the service area of an institution.

2. GAPS/Deficiencies identification: Identify the GAPS or problems or Deficiencies from the service area of an institution and try to solve it quickly as possible.

3. Identify all the service areas where problems exist: What are the service areas of the Institute and strongly research and analyze unless the quality standards meets or having problems.

4. Operational Process Audit:Audit Operation Process and Understand & Improve operational process if there is any barrier arises.

5. Commitment Checking: As generally during selling, quality service is offered, so, check whether it is ensured or not?

SQGAPFILL MODEL/FORMULA :      SQGAPFILL =  G  –   F    , Where, G = GAP (Identify the Weakness/Deficiencies/Problems/Lacking etc.), F = Fill the GAPS after identifying the gaps.


Quality Tools& Techniques: Apply a valid and reliable quality tools& techniques based on priority and which situation demands by the users. Here, EQSERV = Economic Quality Service formula can be useful.

Service Standard Implementation: Identify the GAPS where service standard should be implemented.

Invest in lacking:  Invest in the lacking areas or where failure areas founds or needs to be improvement.


Why Economic Quality Service (EQSERV) Model?

EQSERV = Economic Quality Service

EQSERV = Economic Quality Service, Why EQSERV, it’s because resources are limited than expectations in each and every institutions. So, priority based quality improvement is needed in consideration with its competitors in the market.  In this model, the assumption is that quality will be improved step by step or stage by stage priority basis to ensure total economic quality service eventually. This EQSERV model will minimize the finance investment pressure in terms of quality improvement at a time. Keep in mind, customers or users now a day wants, innovative service, quality service through economy price and swift delivery so, there is a challenge for concerned institutions.

EQSERV = AW – PW     Where, AW = All works , all areas of work for quality improvement.

PW = Priority Basis works, the areas where have to work first priority based for quality improvement.

Say, as for example, you found (5) five areas of service for improvement then take any one area (1) priority basis for improvement thus the formula will be as follows :-

EQSERV = AW – PW ,  = 5 – 1 = 4 , Here 4 is the value for further improvement later on by Stage 1 or 2 or 3 or 4.

To apply this EQSERV model, there are few stages or attempts required to be applied to see the outcomes. These are Attempts No.1 or Stage 1, Attempts No.2 or Stage 2, Attempts No.3 or Stage 3,

EQSERV = Economic Quality Service , = AW – PW

Where, AW = All works , all areas of work for quality improvement.

PW = Priority Basis works, the areas where have to work first priority based for quality improvement. Priorities works list to be scheduled through Stage 1 , stage 2, Stage 3, Stage 4. At the Final stage the result from operations (AW – APW) will be declared as all priorities basis works done/completed successfully via effectively and efficiently.

To ensure the EQSERV, SQGAPFILL MODEL (Service Quality GAPFILL Model) have to apply through identify the focus areas of service that should drive for improvement. Otherwise,each and every organization/institutions have right to find the gaps (where should quality requires for development) in terms of ensuring economy quality service to its customers or end users. So, according to the finding gap areas the concerned quality assurance team/cell may apply focus area directly to get the desired output or improvement.

Stage 1:    EQSERVE =  AW–PW1(Attempt 1 on initial focus area of service where should drive for improvement).

                                     = 4 -1  = 3

Stage 2:    EQSERVE =  AW–PW2( Attempt 2 on focus area of service where should drive for improvement).

= 3 -1  = 2

Stage 3:    EQSERVE =  AW–PW3( Attempt 3 on focus area of service where should drive for improvement).

= 2-1  = 1

Stage 4:    EQSERVE =  AW–PW4[ Attempt 4 (Outcomes from Survey, Research, Analysis, Evaluation, Implementation, Monitor that EQSERV established)].

= 1-1  = 0

Stage (Final) = AW – APW (All Priorities basis works done)

= 5 – (1+1+1+1+1) = 5 – 5 = 0 , Zero means all possible service improvement action taken/done by all the stages from 1 to 4.

Note:If any new service zone seems needed to be improved during application and development process of EQSERVE (Stages 1 to 4), then you may re-define the EQSERVE formula as mentioned below:

= (5 +1) – (1+1+1+1+1+1) = 6 – 6 = 0 , Zero means all possible service improvement action taken/done by all the stages from 1 to 4.

NB.: In the above stage 1 to 4, the diminishing method being used like when the initial service stage 1 being improved from the AL (All Works)then in the stage 2 level, the attempt 2 will be applied, in the Stage 3 and 4 then will be works and in final phase i.e. Stage (Final) = AW – APW (All Priorities basis works done)respectively. During EQSERV model operations from stage 1 to stage 4, if any new service area comes where quality development needed urgently then you should add this service in the to do stage of AL (All Works) then this newly service will be considered first based on what situation demands.

Eventually, in the 4thand final stage here the practical Survey, Research, Analysis and evaluation actions are required.  In this section, the concerned institution or operations department of (R & D) or Service Manager or quality researcher will give the real picture & data through written basis that how much the EQSERV model works for their institutions in ensuring quality service standard otherwise the following formula will be applied to conclude the EQSERV operations:

Stage (Final) = AW – APW (All Priorities basis works done)

After the “Stage (final)”, the operations from EQSERVE model will be concluded here.

Keywords/Tags line: Economic Quality Service, EQSERV, SQGAPFILL MODEL, Quality Service, Unique Quality Service Model,  Quality Service Model, Quality Service Formula, Expectation, Achievement, Acquisition, Quality Service Management, Quality Management, Total Quality Management,

TQSM (Total Quality Service Measurement) Model, SQGAPFILL Model, EQSERV (Economic Quality Service), Quality Service Circle (7 Steps)

–>The formula invented by REJAUL ABEDIN, Ph.D (UK) and Ph.D (hc, USA) and CEO, Founder and Consultant Head of ThoughtWares Consulting & MSI  And Assistant Director of Finance at North East University Bangladesh, Sylhet.  You can be reached to Researcher , Scholar  REJAUL ABEDIN, Ph.D (UK) and Ph.D (hc, USA) at Email :  jewelrejabd@gmail.com  OR  info@twcmsi.org , Skype ID: biz_hr_management_consultant

Researchers are most welcome from local and international institutions. Our team will assist you in understanding the full models via online.